1) Linear Model
This type of project lifecycle model is based on traditional project management (TPM) approach (Westland, 2006). The project life cycle assumes that, the five process groups mentioned above are based on a linear process flow (Kloppenborg, 2010). This kind of project life cycle does not accommodate or tolerate changes. It assumes that one step of the project is completed before the other one is undertaken and completed in a linear process flow. The model assumes that the five process groups are completed on a sequential linear process following the order; from scope to plan, launch, monitor, control and project closing (Westland, 2006). Manufacturing process uses linear project lifecycle.
2) Incremental Model
This type of project life cycle is very similar to linear project lifecycle model and it is also based on TPM approach (AbouRizk, 2010) However, unlike linear design, incremental approach says that solutions are released once they have been completed (Meredith & Mantel, 2012). This approach contrary to linear tolerates change in the scope. An example where this project life cycle model or type can be applied is construction projects. This is because the results of a construction project are released incrementally (AbouRizk, 2010).
3) Iterative Model
This type of project life cycle is based on agile project management (APM) approach and it delivers solutions on every ‘Iteration’ (Meredith & Mantel, 2012). Iterative project lifecycle does not wait for results to be delivered before moving to the next process group. The results in every process group are not always clear and, thus this model requires constant communication and feedback between the stakeholders as the solutions are developed (Kloppenborg, 2010). It accommodates all the views from all the stakeholders and, does not emphasize on the completion of one process group before moving on to the next. An example of a project that uses the iterative design lifecycle model r type is the process of developing a construction design (AbouRizk, 2010). This is due to the reason that a construction design is being developed, the designer and the client maintain regular communication as each party gives feedbacks and solutions in every single step.
4) Adaptive Model
This project life cycle model or type is also closely related to APM just like iterative model. However, the only difference between adaptive and iterative models is that adaptive design life cycle model does not have much information that is known and the kind of solution expected (Meredith & Mantel, 2012). In addition, adaptive model does not involve the functional aspect of searching for a solution (AbouRizk, 2010). An example of a project that can use this type or model of project life cycle is software development. Adaptive project life cycle is very appropriate for complex or complicated projects.
5) Extreme Model
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This type of project involves a high level of client involvement (Meredith & Mantel, 2012). However, in this model, the goals and solutions required at the project’s completion are not known. It is appropriate for projects that have many unknowns. An example of a project that uses this type of project lifecycle is a research and development project.
Schedule Delay Analysis in Industry
Schedule delay analysis is one of the most essential parts of industry construction. It can determine success and failure of any industry construction project. The schedule delay analysis should be done in accordance with industry standards. In schedule delay analysis claim involves five steps:
- Determination of how the projects are planed in relation to projects, workforce, duration, capital and business expenditure.
- Establish the achievements that have been made so far in terms of activities, program, capital and business achievements.
- Establishing the variance between the planned and the actual performance and schedule
- Determining the cause of variances between the planned and actual performance and program.
- Calculating the financial results in performance and the planned program in order to help the affected shareholders to seek a legal claim regarding the program delay in industry construction project.
The different claim analysis methods for schedule delay in industry include: planned method for delay analysis, built method for delay analysis and a combination of both built and planned designs for delay analysis (Westland, 2006).
Built method for delay analysis claim emphasizes on measuring what has been achieved so far in terms of program, finances, capital and workforce among other critical issues of the industry project (Meredith & Mantel, 2012). Planned method for delay analysis claim aims at establishing what had been forecasted and planned. It aims at establishing whether or not what had been planned has been achieved (AbouRizk, 2010).
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Schedule Delay Analysis in Research
Schedule delay analysis in research projects, takes the same process as schedule delay analysis in industry/construction project (Kloppenborg, 2010). It aims at establishing the reasons and the degree of variance between the planned and actual performance in relation to the set schedule. The study aims at helping the affected party to make a legal claim based on the loss incurred due to the delay. The process of schedule delay analysis claim in research involves five steps similar to industry schedule delay claim analysis. The steps involve:
- Determination of the research project plan in terms of activities, workforce and duration.
- Determination of what has been achieved so far.
- Establishing the variance between the planned and the actual performance and schedule.
- Determination of the cause of variances between the planned and actual performance and schedule.
- Calculation of the financial effects in performance and the planned schedule in order to help the affected shareholders to seek legal claim regarding the schedule delay in industry construction project.
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