1. Owning of multimedia operations and other businesses by Viacom, General Electric, Disney, Time-Warner, CBS Corporation, and News Corporation Limited is a cause of concern. The Media Conglomerates, which is the merge between these corporations and media, influence media biasness. The multimedia operations will tend to favour the corporations leading to the bias brought about by political and economic influence that is unaccountable. The situation may lead to a crisis in the economy as many firms that are thought not to be cooperating may be side-lined hence their services to the society would be limited.
2. The media interpret the election results in terms of popularities of the candidates and mostly they tend to favour the party winning in the state races. They also use opinion polls to interpret the results, which sometimes are wrongly analysed. Most of the candidates interpret the results basing on the results they obtained from the opinion polls conducted and analysed by political analysts. They sometimes tend to think the crowd that attend their rallies will all vote for them and they end interpreting that they have their votes.
The winning candidate uses political analysts to interpret the results. The analysts always base their analysis on tidal waves, and this is what the candidates use as a basis for election results interpretation. For example, the Big Red Tidal Wave in America that swamped democrats in mid elections.
The role of the media in explaining elections outcome is to give a clear picture of voters’ characters on the poll day. It has to provide the analysis of recent polls and how it affected the outcomes. The media also has to give the entire information from campaigns to poll results; opinion polls including. Helping the voters understand how to vote and get the correct leader demoratically is another mandate of the media.
The real picture is not given by the media and the candidates on the outcomes, as those who lost will always argue about rigging and many other forms of poll stealing. On the part of the media, it will tend to report mostly what the side they favour stands for, hence there is biasness in their reports.
3. First, Grassroots lobbying has grassroots support, while Astroturf lobbying depends on cash. These are the main strengths of the two sides: clean air for Astroturf and clean water for Grassroots.
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4. Political parties in America do not live up to responsible party thesis. The reason for this is they do not focus on policy but rather on candidates. This makes them fail to do a presentation of a real choice between proposals of policy. They also have an assumption that the rule of two parties is perfect. Alternation of parties in office gives birth to an unfriendly erratic policy.
5. There are two types of pseudo polls that exist. These are discussed below:
- A straw poll or a straw vote is a poll, which results are nonbinding. At conferences on order rules, in order to see if there is a support to an idea suggested and to know which side people are, impromptu straw votes are collected.
- The second is the push poll; this is a social marketing style used commonly during political campaigns. In the poll, people tend to do the alteration of the respondents stands in their effort to conduct a poll that is legitimate.
6. The different planes and jurisdictions of the federal court systems are:
- District Courts: they are the trial courts of the system of federal courts, which jurisdiction is to listen to all types of cases, criminal and civil matters included.
- Appeellate Courts: This comprises of 94 judicial districts organised into 12 local circuits. There is an appeals court in ever circuit. The court listens to appeals on court cases and appeals from federal administrative agencies. It also has a country wide jurisdiction with a mandate to list to specialised appeal cases like those presided over by Court of federal Claims and International Trade Court and patent laws.
- The U.S Supreme court is the highest ranking in the America judicial system. The system has two tiers created by the Congress. These are the appellate and district courts. It comprises eigth associate justices and the U.S. chief justice. The court has mandate over important matters on Constitution that are typically very limited.
7. Issue networks are related to issues that unite the groups. An example of issue networks includes the lobby groups which can be involved in family policy and agriculture. On the other hand, the Iron triangles are the observed common issues between the lobbyists, legislative oversight committee and bureaucratic agency, which lead to policy decisions.
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8. The “We Cannot Wait Campaign” by President Barack Obama was called to stop slowing down growth of the economy by congressional gridlock. In the campaign the issue of job creation was also mentioned. The campaign was successful as President Obama has taken executive actions in support of middle class Americans. Among the actions was speeding up seven main renewable energy infrastructure projects, which definitely creates job opportunities. The actions were also taken to direct the federal agencies utilizing Do Not Pay tool in the effort of preventing errors in payment. Such errors could be money sent to dead people or signing contracts with firms that have tried to con the government. This was an effort to protect the economy from slowing down.
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