Among all the modern technologies, the Internet is one of the most important sources, which is used daily by many people around the world with the purpose of communication, training, education, etc. Nevertheless, the Internet also can be used for illegal purposes that can affect many children. In order to protect children from a dangerous influence of the Internet, the government adopted two acts, which should be studied in more details to determine the major backgrounds for their adoption.
In the end of the 20th century, most families had one or more computers at their homes. Besides, children used computers at schools as well. This allowed parents and their children to have a stable access to the Internet. At that time, in 2000, the U.S. Congress adopted a new regulation called Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), which states that any online personal data collection from children younger than 13 years old is prohibited. In this regard, COPPA provides the parents with the possibility to monitor what information was received by their children and from what websites. COPPA was created in such a way that it can supervise the information, which can become a risk factor or endanger children. Taking into account the fact that on the Internet, children may suffer from pedophiles, swindlers, and other criminals, parents can reduce these risks at the expense of obtaining information concerning the Internet activity of their children (“Children’s online Privacy Protection Act of 1998”, n.d.). Besides, new provisions were added to COPPA on July 01, 2013. According to these additional protections, sites must request the age information in order to avoid the leakage of information harmful for children (Shulga, 2013).
Almost all schools, libraries, houses, public places, and offices are equipped with computers and have access to Internet. Moreover, people even use smartphones for Internet connection. Advanced technologies have big prospects for society, but there are new ethical and social issues. In this regard, new technologies expose the modern children to harmful and inappropriate sites without restriction every day. In order to elliminate the offensive content from the Internet, Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) was adopted in 2000. CIPA obliges schools and public libraries to install various filters on their computers in order to protect minors from inappropriate sites. Since when using the Internet there can be such ethical issues as obtaining obscene information, for example, a child pornography, the main purpose of CIPA is to protect children from such information and other dangers of the Internet. Federal budgeting is provided only in cases when the mentioned requirements are met (“Children’s Internet Protection Act”, n.d.).
At first, CIPA was implemented in all public schools. Further, the Supreme Court ordered to add libraries to the range of institutions this act was adopted by. The reason for the obligatory adherence to the act at schools was represented by an increasing understanding of the Internet and its active use by children. Currently, computers and the Internet are one of the most important tools for the information review and research conduction. However, it was noticed that these tools are not only inappropriate for kids, but often distract them in the course of work and studying. Besides, the frequent use of the Internet leads to the deprivation of children’s habits and behavior. In this regard, the act makes the subordinate institutions install filters, which block harmful information and, thus, isolate children from the negative influence (“Children’s Internet Protection Act”, n.d.).
Modern children may be faced by online predators, pedophiles, and other inappropriate things in online games, chat rooms, sexual messages, pictures of teens drinking, drugs, and even wrong information or data written online before they become eighteen. Thus, in 2000, the government accepted Children’s Internet Protection Act for solving all the ethical issues concerning the Internet. Since children’s personal information can be used by bullies, pedophiles, or other type of creep, Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act was adopted in 1998 and extended in 2013.
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